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Additional Sources


Government of Canada,

PennState Extension,

Alabama Butterfly Atlas,

University of FLorida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences,

University of Virginia, Mountain Lake Biological Station,

Ohio Department of Natural Resources,

University of Minnesota Urban Forestry Outreach & Research,

Animal Diversity Web,

Butterflies and Moths of North America,

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, All About Birds,

Finger Lakes Native Plant Society,

Insect Identification for the Casual Observer,

Mushroom Expert,

New York Waterfalls and Nature,

Paleontological Research Institution, including Museum of the Earth, Cayuga Nature Center, and Smith Woods:

Tompkins County Flora Project,

USDA Plants Database,

Vanderbilt University, Department of Biological Sciences,

Wildflowers of the Northeastern and Northcentral U.S.A.,


Kershner, Mathews, Nelson, and Spellenberg. 2008. National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York.

Mikolas M. 2017. A Beginner’s Guide to Recognizing Trees of the Northeast. The Countryman Press, New York, pp. 15-19.

Alden, Peter. 1999. National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Mid-Atlantic States. Knopf, New York, 448 pp.

Allmon, Warren D., and Robert M. Ross. 2008. Ithaca is Gorges: A Guide to the Geology of the Ithaca Area, 4th ed. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, 28 pp.

Allmon, Warren D., Marvin P. Pritts, Peter L. Marks, Blake P. Epstein, David A. Bullis, and Kurt A. Jordan. 2017. Smith Woods: The Environmental History of an Old Growth Forest Remnant in Central New York State. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, Special Publication no. 52, 208 pp.

Ansley, J. E. 2000. The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Northeastern U.S. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, Special Publication no. 24, 182 pp.

Bloom, Arthur L. 2018. Gorges History: Landscapes and Geology of the Finger Lakes Region. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, Special Publication no. 55, 214 pp.

Bosanko, Dave. 2008. Fish of New York. Adventure Publications, Cambridge, Minnesota, 192 pp.

Chapman, William K., ed. Wildflowers of New York in Color. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York, 168 pp.

Clausen, R. T. 1949. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Cayuga Quadrangle 42°-43° N, 76°-77° W. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, New York, Memoir no. 291, 87 pp.

Dieckmann, Jane Marsh. 1986. A Short History of Tompkins County. DeWitt Historical Society of Tompkins County, Ithaca, New York, 229 pp.

Donaldson, Alfred Lee. 1921. A History of the Adirondacks. Century Company, New York, volume 1. Online at|XIA

Figiel, R. 1995. Culture in a Glass: Reflections on the Rich Heritage of Finger Lakes Wine. Silver Thread Books, Lodi, New York, 53 pp.

Gibbs, James P. 2007. The Amphibians and Reptiles of New York State: Identification, Natural History, and Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, 504 pp.

Haine, Peggy. 2002. Cornell Plantations Path Guide. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 172 pp.

Hinds, James, and Patricia Hinds. 2008. The Macrolichens of New England. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York, 608 pp.

Isachsen, Y. W., E. Landing, J. M. Lauber, L. V. Rickard, and W.B. Rogers, eds. 2000. Geology of New York: A Simplified Account, 2nd ed. New York State Museum Cultural Education Center and New York State Geological Survey, Albany, New York, 300 pp.

Lassoie, James P. 1996. Forest Trees of the Northeast. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, New York, 227 pp.

Leonard, Mortimer Demarest. 1928. A List of the Insects of New York with a List of the Spiders and Certain Other Allied Groups. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, New York, Memoir no. 101, 1091 pp.

Luther, D. D. 1910. Geology of the Auburn-Genoa Quadrangles. New York State Museum Bulletin 137, 36 pp.

Magee, Dennis W., and Harry E. Ahles. 2007. Flora of the Northeast. A Manual of the Vascular Flora of New England and Adjacent New York, 2nd ed. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1214 pp.

Mohler, Charles L., Peter Marks, and Sana Gardescu. 2006. Guide to the Plant Communities of the Central Finger Lakes Region. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, 128 pp.

Tekiela, Stan. 2005. Birds of New York, 2nd ed. Adventure Publications, Cambridge, Minnesort, 324 pp.

Tekiela, Stan. 2006. Trees of New York. Adventure Publications, Cambridge, Minnesota, 260 pp.

Wiegand, K. M., and A. J. Eames. 1926. The Flora of the Cayuga Lake Basin, New York: Vascular Plants. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, New York, Memoir no. 92, 491 pp.

Wesley, F. R., S. Gardescu, and P. L. Marks. 2008. Vascular Plant Species of the Cayuga Region of New York State. Unpublished report, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, online at

Thank Yous

  • Nick Gonzalez
  • Aerin Park
  • Maxine Perry
  • Kyle LaPlant
  • Dave Fass
  • Katie Bagnall-Newman
  • Jonathan Hendricks
  • Amanda Schmitt Piha
  • Shyia Magan

Photo Credits

James Dake; Dayna Jorgenson (two-lined salamander); Robert Wesley (Rough-Stalked Feather Moss); Environmental Protection Agency (Virginia Waterleaf); J. Delanoy (White Sweet Clover); Daniel Layton (Yellow Lady Slipper); Marla Coppolino (all land snail photos); Bruce Marlin (Deer Fly); WesDigital (Earwig); Benny Mazur (Mayfly); Tim McCormack (Waterstrider); Kim Fleming (Water Boatman); Tim Gage (Carpenter Ant); Neil Kelley (Convergent Lady Beetle); Jacob Enos (Large Whirligig Beetle); James Jordan (Mosquito); Michael Apel (American Copper); Megan McCarty (Black Swallowtail, Silver-spotted Skipper); Stephen Patrick (Cabbage White); Tommy C. (Orange Sulpher); Michelle Tribe (Crayfish); Hardin MD University of Iowa (Deer Tick); Luc Viatour (Goldenrod Crab Spider); Teresa Yoder (Eastern Newt, Spotted Salamander); Patrick Coin (Slimy Salamander); John Wilson (Northern Spring Salamander); Sander van der Molen (Spring Peeper); John Swanlund (Brown Snake); L.P. (Coal Skink); Per Verdonk (Eastern Milk Snake); Christine Schmidt (Eastern Garter Snake); D.R. (Green Snake); C.F.K. (Northern Watersnake); John Mosesso (Ribbon Snake, Spotted Turtle); Cody Hough (Ringneck Snake); Tim Vickers (Timber Rattlesnake); Wilfried Burns (Wood Turtle); Mike Baird (American Kestrel, Great Blue Heron, Turkey Vulture); Ronald S. (American Woodcock); James Phelps (Barn Swallow, Muskrat, Gray Fox); Robert Barber (Barred Owl); Pierre Bonenfant (Blue Jay); John Benson (Downy Woodpecker, Mourning Dove); Wolfgang Wander (Eastern Screech Owl); Brendan Lally (Great Horned Owl); Manjith Kainickara (Green Heron, American Crow, Common Grackle); Alex Starr (Hairy Woodpecker); Tim Lenz (Killdeer); Eric Baetscher (Mallard); Dominic Sherony (Pileated Woodpecker, Ovenbird, Scarlet Tanager); Chris Breeze (Red-bellied Woodpecker); Christine Fournier (Red-tailed Hawk); Derek Bakken (Sharp-shinned Hawk); Kevin Cole (Wood Duck, House Finch); Ryan Somma (Baltimore Oriole); Will Sweet (American Goldfinch, Black-capped Chickadee); Trisha Shears (Brown Thrasher, European Starling); Jim McCulloch (Chimney Swift); Randen Pederson (Dark-eyed Junco); Andy (Eastern Bluebird); Noel Zia Lee (House Sparrow); Dario Sanches (House Wren); Paul Stein (Northern Cardinal, Bald-faced Hornet); Jeff Kubina (Northern Mockingbird); Jennifer Rensel (Ruby-throated Hummingbird); Gary Irwin (Tufted Titmouse); Bob Lewis (Veery, Yellow Warbler); Matt MacGillivray (White-breasted Nuthatch); Jeff Hoppes (Wood Thrush); Steve Heresy (American Beaver, Black Rat Snake); Sage Ross (Eastern Cottontail); Grendel Khan (Eastern Gray Squirrel); Ken Thomas (Flying Squirrel, River Otter); Erin Silversmith (Groundhog); Gilles Gonthier (Meadow Vole, Northern Short-tailed Shrew); Kenneth Catania (Starnose Mole); Cody Pope (Opossum); Sharon Mollerus (Porcupine); J.M. Wests (Raccoon); Patriot Plaistow John (Red Squirrel); Eric Schmuttenmaer (Striped Skunk); Katie LaSalle-Lowery (Long-tailed Weasel); PeupleLoup (Black Bear, Red Fox); Malcolm (Bobcat); Christopher Bruno (Coyote); Ken (Little Brown Bat); Brendan Lally (Mink).