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Tsuga canadensis

Common Name: Eastern Hemlock
Tsuga canadensis
Tsuga canadensis

Scientific Classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Tracheophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Piales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Tsuga
Species: Tsuga canadensis

Conservation Status

Identifying Features

Eastern hemlock trees have gray to brown or red-brown bark. It has a scaly texture.

Needles are 1/2" long, green, and have two white stripes on the underside of the needles. The needles are flexible and are flat in both shape and in the way they grow from the twig.

Cones are tiny at 3/4" long. They have only a few scales and hang from the twig ends.

These trees grow about 70 feet tall.

Habitat & Range

Eastern hemlock trees are found throughout the northeastern United States, the Great Lakes region, through the Appalachin Mountains, and southeastern Canada. Their habitat is primarily in damp rocky or sloped areas. They grow well along gorges near streams.

At the Cayuga Nature Center, you can find Eastern hemlock trees around our six-story treehouse, overlooking Dennison Falls.

Hemlock Wooly Adelgid

The hemlock wooly adelgid is a small insect native to eastern Asia that feeds off of hemlock trees. When infected, Eastern hemlocks will be weakened, and often die.

Hemlock wooly adelgid can be quickly identified by looking for the white wool-like substance at the base of needles on the tree, where the adelgids live.

To control infestations in an area an approved biocontrol agent may be released and accompanied by the use of chemical insecticides.

Featured image by James Dake.


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